Significance of Autoantibodies in Autoimmune Encephalitis in Relation to Antigen Localization: An Outline of Frequently Reported Autoantibodies with a Non-Systematic Review
The recent discoveries of several autoantibodies produced in patients with autoimmune encephalomyelitis have expanded new clinical entities, such as autoimmune psychosis and autoimmune
epilepsy, and also provide a deep understanding of the background of neurological symptoms in these disorders, together with new insights into the basic neuroscience. For patients with psychotic disorders or intractable epilepsy previously treated in psychiatric wards, there is a
possibility for effective treatment through immunotherapy, such as intravenous methylprednisolone infusion, high-dose immunoglobulin administration, plasmapheresis, or other immunosuppressants.
Synaptic receptor dysfunction due to antibody binding causes various neurological symptoms of encephalopathy-associated pathologies.
Autoimmune encephalitis with psychosis: Warning signs, step-by-step diagnostics and treatment
Results: Disturbances of consciousness and orientation, catatonia, speech dysfunction, focal neurological signs, epileptic seizures/EEG abnormalities or autonomic dysfunction are warning signs in psychiatric patients which should always induce cerebrospinal fluid analysis with determination of antineuronal autoantibodies. Currently established immunotherapy strategies are summarised, taking into account international expert advice.
Conclusions: Guided by clinical warning signs, our qualitative review enables rapid and reliable diagnosis of definite autoimmune encephalitis. This is of high relevance for the affected individuals, since early and sufficiently intense immunotherapy often leads to a good prognosis despite severe illness.
Psychiatric Manifestation of Anti-LGI1 Encephalitis
Case Report- Conclusion: This case study describes a patient with anti-LGI1 encephalitis in the chronified stage and a predominant long-lasting psychiatric course with atypical symptoms of psychosis and typical neurocognitive deficits. The patient’s poor response to anti-inflammatory drugs was probably due to the delayed start of treatment. This delay in diagnosis and treatment may also have led to the FDG-PET findings, which were compatible with frontotemporal dementia (“state of damage”). In similar future cases, newly occurring epileptic seizures associated with psychiatric symptoms should trigger investigations for possible autoimmune encephalitis, even in patients with addiction or other pre-existing psychiatric conditions. This should in turn result in rapid organic clarification and-in positive cases-to anti-inflammatory treatment. Early treatment of anti-LGI1 encephalitis during the “inflammatory activity state” is crucial for overall prognosis and may avoid the development of dementia in some cases.
Autoimmune encephalitis as a differential diagnosis of schizophreniform psychosis: clinical symptomatology, pathophysiology, diagnostic approach, and therapeutic considerations
The awareness of the fact that psychotic syndromes may have autoimmune, Ab-associated causes opens up a new field in psychiatry for a small but probable relevant subgroup of patients. For clinicians, this raises the question as to how far the diagnostic workup and immunomodulating therapy attempts should be advanced in individual cases. This article investigates this question by illustrating constellations in which extended organic diagnostic procedures, especially Ab analyses, should be carried out.
Reviews Red Flags, the syndrome of possible autoimmune encephalitis, Diagnostic approach: Taking Extended history, Medical and neurological physical examination, Neuropsychological testing, Laboratory measurements, EEG, Imaging, tumor screening.
Screening for anti-NMDAR Encephalitis in Psychiatry
Anti-NMDAR encephalitis most commonly presents to psychiatric services, so early identification of this disorder is essential. We aim to validate the two screening criteria (Scott et al. and Herken and Pruss) which have been proposed to identify first episode psychosis patients who should have anti-NMDAR antibody testing.
Psychosis associated to CASPR2 autoantibodies and ovarian teratoma: A case report
First report of CASPR2 associated psychosis related to an ovarian teratoma. Prompt reduction of psychotic symptoms after excision of teratoma. The diagnosis of autoimmune psychosis can be made in the presence of autoantibodies in the serum while CSF is unremarkable.
Patients with depressive and psychotic symptoms non-responding to antidepressant and antipsychotic treatment should be screened for neuronal autoantibodies including CASPR2.
Autoimmune psychosis: an international consensus on an approach to the diagnosis and management of psychosis of suspected autoimmune origin
2 years in the making, top experts in the field make a valueable contribution in this work. They briefly review the background, discuss the existing evidence for a form of autoimmune psychosis, and propose a novel, conservative approach to the recognition of possible, probable, and definite autoimmune psychoses for use in psychiatric practice. Investigations required and the appropriate therapeutic approaches, both psychiatric and immunological, for probable and definite cases of autoimmune psychoses are outlined, and discuss the ethical issues posed by this challenging diagnostic category.
Autoimmunity in psychotic disorders. Where we stand, challenges and opportunities
Take home message
- To date, pathogenic autoantibodies targeting neuronal surface antigens are very rare in psychotic disorders without any form of neurological manifestation.
- Awareness from psychiatrist of the existence of symptoms which overlap between autoimmune encephalitis and psychotic disorders is essential to prompt early diagnosis and intervention for cases with an atypical disease course.
An update on anti-NMDA receptor encephalitis for neurologists and psychiatrists: mechanisms and models
The Psychopathology of NMDAR-antibody encephalitis in adults: a systematic review and phenotypic analysis of individual patient data
Neuropsychiatric symptoms in autoimmune encephalopathies: a clinician’s guide
Psychotic and Non Psychotic Mood Disorders In Autoimmune Encephalitis: Diagnostic Issues and Research Implications
Autoantibodies to central nervous system neuronal surface antigens: psychiatric symptoms and psychopharmacological implications
Autoimmune encephalitis in psychiatric institutions: current perspectives
Autoimmune encephalitis with psychosis: Warning signs, step-by-step diagnostics and treatment
Antibody Mediated Psychosis
Neuropsychological And Psychopathological Profile Of Anti-Nmdar Encephalitis: A Possible Pathophysiological Model For Pediatric Neuropsychiatric Disorders
Dynamic disorganization of synaptic NMDA receptors triggered by autoantibodies from psychotic patients
Anti-NMDA receptor encephalitis presenting as postpartum psychosis—a clinical description and review
Anti-NMDA Receptor Encephalitis: Diagnostic Issues for Psychiatrists
Autoimmune Encephalitis: Not Rare and Increasing
Anti-NMDA receptor encephalitis: An emerging differential diagnosis in the psychiatric community
Psychiatric manifestations of anti-NMDA receptor encephalitis: neurobiological underpinnings and differential diagnostic implications
Ethical Implications of the Mild Encephalitis Hypothesis of Schizophrenia
Clinical, cognitive and neuroanatomical associations of serum NMDAR autoantibodies in people at clinical high risk for psychosis
Serum neuronal autoantibodies, such as those to the NMDA receptor (NMDAR), are detectable in a subgroup of patients with psychotic disorders. It is not known if they are present before the onset of psychosis or whether they are associated with particular clinical features or outcomes. In a case-control study, sera from 254 subjects at clinical high risk (CHR) for psychosis and 116 healthy volunteers were tested for antibodies against multiple neuronal antigens. Preliminary phenotypic analyses revealed that within the CHR sample, the NMDAR antibody seropositive subjects had higher levels of current depression, performed worse on the Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Task (p < 0.05), and had a markedly lower IQ (p < 0.01). NMDAR IgGs were not more frequent in subjects who later became psychotic than those who did not.
This study, NMDAR antibodies did not predict transition to psychosis, as defined by operationalized criteria, or nonremission from the CHR state. NMDAR antibody seropositivity was however associated with a deterioration in disability-associated functioning, short of transition, and indeed greater antibody titre was associated with greater deterioration in function, overall suggesting that NMDAR antibody serostatus should be further evaluated as a predictive marker of functional outcome.
Autoantibody-associated psychiatric syndromes: a systematic literature review resulting in 145 cases
We identified 145 patients with AE mimicking predominant psychiatric/neurocognitive syndromes.
Immunomodulatory treatment was performed in 87% of the cases, and 94% of the patients responded to treatment.
Conclusions: Our findings indicate that AEs can mimic predominant psychiatric and neurocognitive disorders, such as schizophreniform psychoses or neurodegenerative dementia, and that affected patients can be treated successfully with immunomodulatory drugs.
Neuropsychological and psychiatric outcomes in encephalitis: A multi-centre case-control study
Objectives Our aim was to compare neuropsychological and psychiatric outcomes across three encephalitis aetiological groups: Herpes simplex virus (HSV), other infections or autoimmune causes (Other), and encephalitis of unknown cause (Unknown).
Conclusions Neuropsychological and psychiatric outcomes after encephalitis vary according to aetiology. Memory and naming are severely affected in HSV, and less so in other forms. Neuropsychological functioning improves over time, particularly in those with more severe short-term impairments, but subjective cognitive complaints, depression, and anxiety persist and should be addressed in rehabilitation programs.
Novel Antineuronal Autoantibodies With Somatodendritic Staining Pattern in a Patient With Autoimmune Psychosis
This case report shows an association of a psychotic syndrome with predominant catatonic symptoms and antineuronal autoantibodies against an unknown epitope detected by a tissue-based assay. The basic diagnostics were mostly unremarkable with the exception of a conspicuous EEG. The application of tissue-based assays for the detection of so far unknown autoantibodies might also be helpful in other psychiatric patients with suspected autoimmune pathophysiology.
Association of Primary Humoral Immunodeficiencies With Psychiatric Disorders and Suicidal Behavior and the Role of Autoimmune Diseases
In this population-based cohort study of 8378 patients in Sweden, having a record of primary humoral immunodeficiencies was associated with greater odds of psychiatric disorders and suicidal behavior, even after controlling for autoimmune diseases and familial confounding. The associations were significantly stronger in women and among those exposed to primary humoral immunodeficiencies and autoimmune diseases.
A prospective three-year follow up on the clinical significance of anti-neuronal antibodies in acute psychiatric disorders
The clinical significance of anti-neuronal antibodies for psychiatric disorders is controversial. We investigated if a positive anti-neuronal antibody status at admission to acute psychiatric inpatient care was associated with a more severe neuropsychiatric phenotype and more frequent abnormalities during clinical work-up three years later.