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If you have a condition or are taking medications that weaken your immune system, you may NOT be fully protected even if you are fully vaccinated. Continue to follow precautions

Ask your doctor about this new COVID-prevention treatment for immune compromised people ~

AstraZeneca’s Evusheld (tixagevimab co-packaged with cilgavimab), a long-acting antibody (LAAB) combination, has received emergency use authorisation (EUA) in the US for the pre-exposure prophylaxis (prevention) of COVID-19, with first doses expected to become available very soon.
Evusheld is a combination of two long-acting monoclonal antibodies and is the only antibody therapy authorised in the US for COVID-19 pre-exposure prophylaxis and the only COVID-19 antibody delivered as an intramuscular dose (150mg tixagevimab and 150mg cilgavimab).
About seven million people in the US are immunocompromised and may benefit from Evusheld for pre-exposure prophylaxis of COVID-19. Evusheld received Emergency Use Authorisation (EUA) in the US in December 2021 for the pre-exposure prophylaxis (prevention) of COVID-19 in people with moderate to severe immune compromise due to a medical condition or immunosuppressive medications and who may not mount an adequate immune response to COVID-19 vaccination, as well as those individuals for whom COVID-19 vaccination is not recommended.
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Have You Been Fully Vaccinated?

In general, people are considered fully vaccinated: 

  • 2-dose series, such as the Pfizer or Moderna vaccines with a booster after 6 months
  •  after a single-dose vaccine, such as Johnson & Johnson’s Janssen vaccine and 6 months later receive a booster

If you don’t meet these requirements, you are NOT fully vaccinated. Keep taking all precautions until you are fully vaccinated.  SARS-CoV-2 vaccination is safe for Autoimmune Encephalitis patients

If you have a condition or are taking medications that weaken your immune system, you may NOT be fully protected even if you are fully vaccinated. Talk to your healthcare provider. Even after vaccination, you may need to continue taking all precautions.

COVID-19 Vaccines: The Ultimate 2021 Guide to Every Vaccine

This complete guide aims to cut through the fog of misinformation and provide you with all of the available facts on Covid-19 vaccines. You’ll learn everything about Covid-19 vaccines – from high-profile vaccine candidates, to the wider issues and talking points surrounding immunization campaigns.


In the USA,  the FDA approved emergency use authorization for the Pfizer-BioNTech COVID-19 Vaccine December 11th, 2020.

 Immunocompromised persons, including individuals receiving immunosuppressant therapy, may have a diminished immune response to the Pfizer-BioNTech COVID-19 Vaccine. To learn more about this vaccine’s drug interactions, click here.

For a detailed report of adverse effects with the Pfizer BNT162b2 vaccine worldwide, click here. The data does not reveal any novel safety concerns or risks. 

Moderna’s vaccine against COVID-19 in individuals 18 years of age or older received Emergency Use Authorization December 18, 2020 in the USA. It is now available to children 12 years-old or older. To learn more about this vaccine’s drug interactions, click here.

AstraZeneca COVID-19 Vaccine; learn more about this vaccine’s drug interactions here.

There are several myths about COVID-19 vaccinations circulating. This article from Mayo Clinic debunks those myths.

You will find answers to some of the most common questions people are asking about COVID-19 mRNA vaccines on this downloadable handout.

 It will be several months before 70% – 80% of the population will be vaccinated to achieve herd immunity. During this critical time, the best way to prevent illness is to avoid being exposed to this virus.

Interim Public Health Recommendations for Fully Vaccinated People

As of April 27, 2021, fully vaccinated people can:

    • Visit with other fully vaccinated people indoors without wearing masks or physical distancing
    • Visit with unvaccinated people (including children) from a single household who are at low risk for severe COVID-19 disease indoors without wearing masks or physical distancing
    • Participate in outdoor activities and recreation without a mask, except in certain crowded settings and venues
    • Resume domestic travel and refrain from testing before or after travel or self-quarantine after travel.
    • Refrain from testing before leaving the United States for international travel (unless required by the destination) and refrain from self-quarantine after arriving back in the United States.
    • Refrain from testing following a known exposure, if asymptomatic, with some exceptions for specific settings
    • Refrain from quarantine following a known exposure if asymptomatic
    • Refrain from routine screening testing if asymptomatic and feasible

    For now, fully vaccinated people should continue to:

    • Take precautions in indoor public settings like wearing a well-fitted mask
    • Wear masks that fit snuggly when visiting indoors with unvaccinated people who are at increased risk for severe COVID-19 disease or who have an unvaccinated household member who is at increased risk for severe COVID-19 disease
    • Wear well-fitted masks when visiting indoors with unvaccinated people from multiple households
    • Avoid indoor large-sized in-person gatherings
    • Get tested if experiencing COVID-19 symptoms
    • Follow guidance issued by individual employers
    • Follow CDC and health department travel requirements and recommendations

    Coronavirus Transmission

    SARS-CoV-2  is the novel coronavirus that causes COVID-19. The virus is thought to spread mainly from person-to-person.

    • Between people who are in close contact with one another (within about 6 feet).
    • Through respiratory droplets produced when an infected person coughs or sneezes or talking during close face to face contact. These droplets can land in the mouths or noses of people who are nearby or possibly be inhaled into the lungs. Transmission can also occur when a person touches a surface or object that has active virus particles on it and then touches their mouth, nose or eyes. 

    Vaccinated vs Unvaccinated Guidelines

    as of April 27-2021

    Choose Safer Activities-4-27-2021-cdc-guidelines

    Reduce your risk of getting COVID-19

    During a COVID-19 outbreak in your community, stay home as much as possible to further reduce your risk of being exposed. Avoid close contact.   

    It is especially important for people at increased risk of severe illness from COVID-19, and those who live with them, to protect themselves from getting COVID-19.

    • Limit your interactions with other people as much as possible.
    • Avoid close contact with people who are sick
    • Put distance between yourself and other people if COVID-19 is spreading in your community. Remain at least 6 feet away from others when you leave your home. Evidence suggests the virus may travel further through activities such as coughing and shouting. Rules on distancing should reflect the multiple factors that affect risk, including ventilation, occupancy, and exposure time. (See image ‘Risk of SARS-CoV-2 transmission in different settings’ below. 
    • The CDC is now recommending face coverings to help slow the spread. Face masks should cover both your nose and mouth when in public settings. Cloth face coverings are to help others so they do not catch your germs and substantially protect you from exposure to the virus.  Face masks do not replace social distancing.
    • See WHO Updates regarding guidance on mask-wearing for Healthcare workers and the public


    Protect yourself and your community from COVID-19

     Wash your hands frequently with soap and water for at least 20 seconds, especially after going to the bathroom, before eating, and after blowing your nose, coughing or sneezing.

    • If soap and water are not available, use an alcohol-based hand sanitizer with at least 60% alcohol.
    • Avoid close contact with people who are sick and stay home when you are sick.
    herd immunity - COVID-19

    IAES developed these products to provide additional protection to people at increased risk of severe illness from COVID-19, and those who live with them.  For more inspiration, visit the AE Warrior Store

    high risk face mask
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    high risk hat

    This is a must-watch NBC news story that features interviews with three doctors on our Doctor’s List- Dr. Ming Lim, Dr. Michael Zandi, and Assoc Prof Arun Venkatesan discuss the dangerous neurological effects, of encephalitis caused by COVID-19 in some of their pediatric patients.

    In an August 28th, 2020 case series of 91 children with COVID-19 in Korea was found that Children are silent transmitters of SARS-COVID and that SARS-CoV-2 RNA was detected for a mean of 17.6 days overall and 14.1 days in asymptomatic cases.

    A pandemic is a global outbreak of disease. Pandemics happen when a new virus emerges to infect people and can spread between people sustainably. Because there is little to no pre-existing immunity against the new virus, it spreads worldwide.

    The virus that causes COVID-19 is infecting people and spreads easily from person-to-person. Cases have been detected in every country worldwide. Due to the higher mortality rate with COVID-19, mitigation of the spread can not be accomplished through herd immunity as it would cause needless suffering and a preventable high death toll. Mitigation will occur with compliance with health guidelines. 

    Each one of us can help stop the spread of COVID-19 and save lives by wearing a mask, social distancing, and washing our hands. We are #StrongerTogether. Until a safe and effective vaccine, our collective actions will determine the outcome of how many global citizens contract the virus. 

    updated guidance on masks for health workers and the public Website FB version 2 - COVID-19

    Updated September-11-2020: Guidance on Mask Wearing for Health Care Workers and the General Public

    New evidence shows wearing face protection results in a large reduction of transmission of COVID-19. People 60 years or older, those with an underlying medical condition, and during air travel should wear medical masks. Healthy individuals with no symptoms should wear a fabric mask.

    The World Health Organization (WHO) provides information of when and how to use masks. Research has also provided us with information on the most and least effective materials to use when making a face mask.

    Click the image to read the flyer.  Printing and distributing this flyer will help stop the spread. #StaySafe #CoronavirusCommunityChallenge #BeAHelper

    Risk of SARS-CoV-2 transmission in different settings
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    Who is at Higher Risk?

    Risk factors for progressing to severe illness may include but are not limited to 

    Covid 19  Preventative Steps for Autoimmune Encephalitis Patients revised 9 11 2020 FB - COVID-19

    Health Precautions for AE Patients and the COVID-19 Pandemic

    Click image to print our flyer to remind your friends, family, co-workers how they can prevent the spread of germs.

    shopping list covid-19 care kit_FB

    What are the signs and symptoms of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19)?

    Reported illnesses have ranged from asymptomatic cases, mild symptoms to severe illness, and death for confirmed COVID-19 cases.

    Patients with a mild clinical presentation may not initially require hospitalization, but clinical signs and symptoms may worsen, with progression to lower respiratory tract disease in the second week of illness.

    Symptoms occur on average about 5 days after exposure to the virus but may appear as soon as 2 days after exposure. Almost all patients develop symptoms within 12 days. Therefore, a 14-day self-isolation is recommended for people who were likely exposed to the virus. People with these symptoms or combinations of symptoms may have COVID-19: 

    • Fever or chills
    • Cough
    • Shortness of breath or difficulty breathing
    • Fatigue
    • Muscle or body aches
    • Headache
    • New loss of taste or smell
    • Sore throat
    • Congestion or runny nose
    • Nausea or vomiting
    • Diarrhea

    Other reported symptoms have included the following: 

    This list does not include all possible symptoms. CDC will continue to update this list as we learn more about COVID-19.

    If you develop emergency warning signs for COVID-19 get medical attention immediately. Emergency warning signs include*:


    Trouble breathing

    • Persistent pain or pressure in the chest
    • New confusion or inability to arouse
    • Bluish lips or face
    • 59% of those patients who tested positive for COVID-19 reported a loss of taste and smell                                                                                                
    • *This list is not all-inclusive. Please consult your medical provider for any other symptoms that are severe or concerning
    • April 27, 2020 The CDC added new symptoms to its list  of possible Covid-19 signs.  Visit the CDC for more information on the symptoms seen in Covid-19
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    COVID-19 and the Brain

    The novel coronavirus has infected close to 8 million people worldwide, with infections in every US state and nearly every country on Earth. Most people develop fever, cough, and shortness of breath. However, as more people become infected, less common symptoms are being documented by doctors around the world. Among these are a set of neurological symptoms that suggest that SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes COVID-19, may affect the brain.

    COVID-19 Disease Progression and Treatment

    The virus typically enters through the eyes, mouth, or nose then travels down the throat, where it may cause a cough. In some patients, the virus enters the lungs and may cause pneumonia. Pneumonia leads to fluid filling the air sacs in the lungs, which makes breathing difficult. Most patients with pneumonia must be hospitalized and treated with oxygen. Some patients become very ill and need life support such as mechanical ventilation. About 1 in 20 patients with COVID-19 dies. However, death rates vary substantially by age, ranging from 1 in 900 patients aged 18 to 29 years to 1 in 34 aged 50 to 64 years and 1 in 3 aged 85 years or older.

    How is COVID-19 (or “coronavirus disease 2019”) treated?

    • There are currently vaccines available for COVID-19. It is recommended that people with AE and/or on immune suppressant medications receive the vaccine. Research has shown that those on immunosuppressant treatments may not receive the full effect of the vaccine. Safety guidelines should be continuely followed up herd immunity is reached. Studies are testing many antiviral medications, as well as medications to modify the body’s response to the virus. For certain hospitalized patients, antiviral drugs and steroids may help.
    • PAXLOVID is an investigational medicine used to treat mild-to-moderate COVID-19 in
      adults and children 12 years+
    • Bamlanivimab Monoclonal antibody treatment
    • Treatment focuses on managing symptoms and protecting your family and community through self-quaranertine. Not all patients with COVID-19 will require medical attention, and most people recover within 2 weeks without any specific treatment. But hospitalization can be required for severe cases. (Older adults and people with chronic medical conditions like heart disease, diabetes, or lung disease are at a higher risk of getting very sick from this virus.)
    • Your healthcare provider can help determine whether monitoring your condition in an inpatient or outpatient setting is right for you.
    • If you and your healthcare provider determine that you will monitor your condition from home, ask about which over-the-counter medications they recommend—and be sure to rest, hydrate, and eat a balanced diet as best as you can.
      • Patients with COVID-19 are likely to have fatigue and decreased energy for 6 to 8 weeks. It may be difficult to resume the same activity and exercise as before COVID-19, but it is important to remain active and increase exercise gradually. For most patients, lung function returns to normal after pneumonia.
      • Scientists do not know if people can have COVID-19 more than once, but repeat infection may be possible, particularly for people with mild symptoms during their initial infection.
      •  Caring for Someone At Home

      COVID-19 at-home Care

      Isolate the patient with their own set of cleaning supplies.  If you live in a one-bedroom apartment, The sick person gets the bedroom. The ideal situation is the sick person isolates in a bedroom with an attached bath.  A mask should be worn by anyone leaving or entering.

      Materials for a COVID-19 at-home Care Kit should include:

      • A pulse oximeter to help measure blood oxygen levels
      • Gatorade to replenish lost electrolytes due to the disease
      • Hand sanitizer
      • Face masks to protect others from infection
      • A notebook to log symptoms and help patients identify if their health begins to deteriorate.

      Easing symptoms during a quarantine

      If you’re experiencing symptoms and are in quarantine, here are some ways you can help ease your symptoms:

      • Drink plenty of fluids. Remaining hydrated while sick helps your body fight the infection.  Keep some Gatorade on hand. In general, it’s a good rule of thumb to drink 6–8 glasses (8oz/serving) of water a day. Foods with high water content—like some fruits, vegetables, and soups (chicken soup is a good choice),  also help keep you hydrated. Unsure if you’re getting enough fluids? If you’re well-hydrated, your urine should be a light color.
      • Get rest. Rest for as long as you need. This may mean sleeping 8–10 hours per day, but that’s okay—your body needs it.
      • Eat a balanced diet. Eating a balanced diet is ideal: try to choose lean protein sources as well as fruits and vegetables, which are rich sources of zinc and vitamins A, C, and E.  Nutrient-rich foods like avocados, bananas and apples are recommended staples doctors say we should have on hand to treat a coronavirus patient at home.  All of these help support your immune system.
      • Consider smaller, more frequent meals. Smaller meals are a great solution for quickly feeling full. Aiming for around 4–6 small meals per day may help maximize calorie intake once you’re past the acute phase of the infection (first 24–48 hours).
      • Try a humidifier to help with breathing. Symptoms like congestion, runny nose, dry cough, and sore throat often make breathing feel challenging. But a humidifier can help ease congestion and coughs. (If you have a diagnosed respiratory condition like asthma, it may be a good idea to check in with your healthcare provider prior to using a humidifier.)
      • Talk to your healthcare provider. Ask your provider about which over-the-counter pain reliever would be best for your symptoms.

      Be sure to keep a close eye on your symptoms, and contact your healthcare provider if you notice your symptoms are severe, do not improve, or get worse. Seek medical attention right away if you experience any of the following:

      • Severe shortness of breath
      • Continuous pain or pressure in the chest
      • Persistent fever greater than 102° F

      Stay home until your healthcare provider says you no longer need to. Even if you no longer have any symptoms, follow recommendations for isolation until a healthcare provider has determined you can resume your normal activities. What to do if I’m Sick!

      Reference: (


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      Here is some helpful information to help you sort out the differences between allergies, the COVID-19 illness, a

      cold and the flu. And remember to always check with your primary health care provider if you have any


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      Steps to help prevent the spread of COVID-19 if you are sick

      Clean and disinfect

      • Clean AND disinfect frequently touched surfaces daily. This includes tables, doorknobs, light switches, countertops, handles, desks, phones, keyboards, toilets, faucets, and sinks.
      • If surfaces are dirty, clean them: Use detergent or soap and water prior to disinfection.
      • To disinfect:
        Most common EPA-registered household disinfectants will work. Use disinfectants appropriate for the surface.Options include:
        • Diluting your household bleach.
          To make a bleach solution, mix:
          • 5 tablespoons (1/3rd cup) bleach per gallon of water
          • 4 teaspoons bleach per quart of water

        Follow manufacturer’s instructions for application and proper ventilation. Check to ensure the product is not past its expiration date. Never mix household bleach with ammonia or any other cleanser. Unexpired household bleach will be effective against coronaviruses when properly diluted.

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      Our website is not a substitute for independent professional medical advice. Nothing contained on our website is intended to be used as medical advice. No content is intended to be used to diagnose, treat, cure or prevent any disease, nor should it be used for therapeutic purposes or as a substitute for your own health professional's advice. Although THE INTERNATIONAL AUTOIMMUNE ENCEPHALITIS SOCIETY  provides a great deal of information about AUTOIMMUNE ENCEPHALITIS, all content is provided for informational purposes only. The International Autoimmune Encephalitis Society  cannot provide medical advice.

      International Autoimmune Encephalitis Society is a charitable non-profit 501(c)(3) organization founded in 2016 by Tabitha Andrews Orth, Gene Desotell and Anji Hogan-Fesler. Tax ID# 81-3752344. Donations raised directly supports research, patients, families and caregivers impacted by autoimmune encephalitis and to educating healthcare communities around the world. Financial statement will be made available upon request.

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