A pandemic is a global outbreak of disease. Pandemics happen when a new virus emerges to infect people and can spread between people sustainably. Because there is little to no pre-existing immunity against the new virus, it spreads worldwide.
The virus that causes COVID-19 is infecting people and spreading easily from person-to-person. Cases have been detected in most countries worldwide and community spread is being detected in a growing number of countries.
There is currently no vaccine to prevent coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). The best way to prevent illness is to avoid being exposed to this virus.
SARS-CoV-2 is the novel coronavirus that causes COVID-19. The virus is thought to spread mainly from person-to-person.
- Between people who are in close contact with one another (within about 6 feet).
- Through respiratory droplets produced when an infected person coughs or sneezes or talking during close face to face contact. These droplets can land in the mouths or noses of people who are nearby or possibly be inhaled into the lungs. Transmission can also occur when a person touches a surface or object that has active virus particles on it and then touches their mouth, nose or eyes.
Reduce your risk of getting COVID-19
During a COVID-19 outbreak in your community, stay home as much as possible to further reduce your risk of being exposed. Avoid close contact.
It is especially important for people at increased risk of severe illness from COVID-19, and those who live with them, to protect themselves from getting COVID-19.
- Limit your interactions with other people as much as possible.
- Avoid close contact with people who are sick
- Put distance between yourself and other people if COVID-19 is spreading in your community. Remain at least 6 feet away from others when you leave your home.
- The CDC is now recommending face coverings to help slow the spread. Face masks should cover both your nose and mouth when in public settings. Cloth face coverings are to help others so they do not catch your germs and substantially protect you from exposure to the virus. Face masks do not replace social distancing.
- See WHO Updates regarding guidance on mask-wearing for Healthcare workers and the public
Protect yourself and your community from COVID-19
Wash your hands frequently with soap and water for at least 20 seconds, especially after going to the bathroom, before eating, and after blowing your nose, coughing or sneezing.
- If soap and water are not available, use an alcohol-based hand sanitizer with at least 60% alcohol.
- Avoid close contact with people who are sick and stay home when you are sick.
New evidence shows wearing face protection results in a large reduction of transmission of COVID-19. Research has also provided us with information on the most and least effective materials to use when making a face mask.
Click the image to read the flyer. Printing and distributing this flyer will help stop the spread. #StaySafe #CoronavirusCommunityChallenge #BeAHelper
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Risk factors for progressing to severe illness may include but are not limited to
- Older adults
- People of any age with certain underlying medical conditions are at increased risk for severe illness from COVID-19:
- Chronic kidney disease
- COPD (chronic obstructive pulmonary disease)
- Immunocompromised state (weakened immune system) from solid organ transplant
- Obesity (body mass index [BMI] of 30 or higher)
- Serious heart conditions, such as heart failure, coronary artery disease, or cardiomyopathies
- Sickle cell disease
- Type 2 diabetes mellitus
- moderate to severe asthma
- People on immune suppressant medications. Autoimmune Encephalitis would fall under the category of ‘chronic medical condition’.
What are the signs and symptoms of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19)?
Reported illnesses have ranged from mild symptoms to severe illness and death for confirmed COVID-19 cases.
Patients with a mild clinical presentation may not initially require hospitalization, but clinical signs and symptoms may worsen, with progression to lower respiratory tract disease in the second week of illness.
Symptoms occur on average about 5 days after exposure to the virus but may appear as soon as 2 days after exposure. Almost all patients develop symptoms within 12 days. Therefore, a 14-day self-isolation is recommended for people who were likely exposed to the virus. People with these symptoms or combinations of symptoms may have COVID-19:
- Fever or chills
- Shortness of breath or difficulty breathing
- Muscle or body aches
- New loss of taste or smell
- Sore throat
- Congestion or runny nose
- Nausea or vomiting
Other reported symptoms have included the following:
- Sputum production
- Respiratory distress
This list does not include all possible symptoms. CDC will continue to update this list as we learn more about COVID-19.
If you develop emergency warning signs for COVID-19 get medical attention immediately. Emergency warning signs include*:
- Persistent pain or pressure in the chest
- New confusion or inability to arouse
- Bluish lips or face
- 59% of those patients who tested positive for COVID-19 reported a loss of taste and smell
- *This list is not all-inclusive. Please consult your medical provider for any other symptoms that are severe or concerning
- April 27, 2020 The CDC added new symptoms to its list of possible Covid-19 signs. Visit the CDC for more information on the symptoms seen in Covid-19
The novel coronavirus has infected close to 8 million people worldwide, with infections in every US state and nearly every country on Earth. Most people develop fever, cough, and shortness of breath. However, as more people become infected, less common symptoms are being documented by doctors around the world. Among these are a set of neurological symptoms that suggest that SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes COVID-19, may affect the brain.
COVID-19 Disease Progression and Treatment
The virus typically enters through the eyes, mouth, or nose then travels down the throat, where it may cause a cough. In some patients, the virus enters the lungs and may cause pneumonia. Pneumonia leads to fluid filling the air sacs in the lungs, which makes breathing difficult. Most patients with pneumonia must be hospitalized and treated with oxygen. Some patients become very ill and need life support such as mechanical ventilation. About 1 in 20 patients with COVID-19 dies. However, death rates vary substantially by age, ranging from 1 in 900 patients aged 18 to 29 years to 1 in 34 aged 50 to 64 years and 1 in 3 aged 85 years or older.
How is COVID-19 (or “coronavirus disease 2019”) treated?
- There is currently no vaccine to reduce risk of COVID-19. Several potential vaccines are in development, which may help prevent COVID-19 in the future. Studies are testing many antiviral medications, as well as medications to modify the body’s response to the virus. For certain hospitalized patients, antiviral drugs and steroids may help.
- Treatment currently focuses on managing symptoms and protecting your family and community through self-quarantine. Not all patients with COVID-19 will require medical attention, and most people recover within 2 weeks without any specific treatment. But hospitalization can be required for severe cases. (Older adults and people with chronic medical conditions like heart disease, diabetes, or lung disease are at a higher risk of getting very sick from this virus.)
- Your healthcare provider can help determine whether monitoring your condition in an inpatient or outpatient setting is right for you.
- If you and your healthcare provider determine that you will monitor your condition from home, ask about which over-the-counter medications they recommend—and be sure to rest, hydrate, and eat a balanced diet as best as you can.
- Patients with COVID-19 are likely to have fatigue and decreased energy for 6 to 8 weeks. It may be difficult to resume the same activity and exercise as before COVID-19, but it is important to remain active and increase exercise gradually. For most patients, lung function returns to normal after pneumonia.
- Scientists do not know if people can have COVID-19 more than once, but repeat infection may be possible, particularly for people with mild symptoms during their initial infection.
COVID-19 at-home Care
Isolate the patient with their own set of cleaning supplies. If you live in a one-bedroom apartment, The sick person gets the bedroom. The ideal situation is the sick person isolates in a bedroom with an attached bath. A mask should be worn by anyone leaving or entering.
Materials for a COVID-19 at-home Care Kit should include:
- A pulse oximeter to help measure blood oxygen levels
- Gatorade to replenish lost electrolytes due to the disease
- Hand sanitizer
- Face masks to protect others from infection
- A notebook to log symptoms and help patients identify if their health begins to deteriorate.
Easing symptoms during a quarantine
If you’re experiencing symptoms and are in quarantine, here are some ways you can help ease your symptoms:
- Drink plenty of fluids. Remaining hydrated while sick helps your body fight the infection. Keep some Gatorade on hand. In general, it’s a good rule of thumb to drink 6–8 glasses (8oz/serving) of water a day. Foods with high water content—like some fruits, vegetables, and soups (chicken soup is a good choice), — also help keep you hydrated. Unsure if you’re getting enough fluids? If you’re well-hydrated, your urine should be a light color.
- Get rest. Rest for as long as you need. This may mean sleeping 8–10 hours per day, but that’s okay—your body needs it.
- Eat a balanced diet. Eating a balanced diet is ideal: try to choose lean protein sources as well as fruits and vegetables, which are rich sources of zinc and vitamins A, C, and E. Nutrient-rich foods like avocados, bananas and apples are recommended staples doctors say we should have on hand to treat a coronavirus patient at home. All of these help support your immune system.
- Consider smaller, more frequent meals. Smaller meals are a great solution for quickly feeling full. Aiming for around 4–6 small meals per day may help maximize calorie intake once you’re past the acute phase of the infection (first 24–48 hours).
- Try a humidifier to help with breathing. Symptoms like congestion, runny nose, dry cough, and sore throat often make breathing feel challenging. But a humidifier can help ease congestion and coughs. (If you have a diagnosed respiratory condition like asthma, it may be a good idea to check in with your healthcare provider prior to using a humidifier.)
- Talk to your healthcare provider. Ask your provider about which over-the-counter pain reliever would be best for your symptoms.
Be sure to keep a close eye on your symptoms, and contact your healthcare provider if you notice your symptoms are severe, do not improve, or get worse. Seek medical attention right away if you experience any of the following:
- Severe shortness of breath
- Continuous pain or pressure in the chest
- Persistent fever greater than 102° F
Stay home until your healthcare provider says you no longer need to. Even if you no longer have any symptoms, follow recommendations for isolation until a healthcare provider has determined you can resume your normal activities. What to do if I’m Sick!
Here is some helpful information to help you sort out the differences between allergies, the COVID-19 illness, a
cold and the flu. And remember to always check with your primary health care provider if you have any
Steps to help prevent the spread of COVID-19 if you are sick
Clean and disinfect
- Clean AND disinfect frequently touched surfaces daily. This includes tables, doorknobs, light switches, countertops, handles, desks, phones, keyboards, toilets, faucets, and sinks.
- If surfaces are dirty, clean them: Use detergent or soap and water prior to disinfection.
Most common EPA-registered household disinfectants will work. Use disinfectants appropriate for the surface.
- Diluting your household bleach.
To make a bleach solution, mix:
- 5 tablespoons (1/3rd cup) bleach per gallon of water
- 4 teaspoons bleach per quart of water
Follow manufacturer’s instructions for application and proper ventilation. Check to ensure the product is not past its expiration date. Never mix household bleach with ammonia or any other cleanser. Unexpired household bleach will be effective against coronaviruses when properly diluted.
- Diluting your household bleach.