General Autoimmune Encephalitis
General articles regarding Autoimmune Encephalitis (Encephalopathy). AE is a rare disease that can be progressive or relapse-remitting. Your own body’s immune system is attacking your brain, causing inflammation of the brain.
Articles highly recommended in the field of Autoimmune Encephalitis.
Diagnosis & Treatment
Current diagnostic and treatment strategies concerning Autoimmune Encephalitis.
Known also as “NMDA receptor antibody encephalitis”, anti-NMDAr is a potentially lethal form of brain inflammation which also has a high probability of recovery with treatment.
There are multiple types of antibodies in Autoimmune Encephalitis. They have different clinical presentations and syndromes and thus, have different responses to treatment.
Hashimoto’s Encephalitis (SREAT)
HE is usually defined by the presence of high levels of thyroid antibodies in the blood. HE has been reported in all age groups but typically affects females around the age of 50 years.
Glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD)
“Anti-GAD antibody-associated LE is a rare inflammatory brain disease characterized by subacute memory loss, psychiatric symptoms, seizures, and sometimes signal abnormalities involving the mesial temporal lobes and other areas of the limbic system.” (
LGI1 & CASPR2
Neuromyelitis Optica Spectrum Disorder (NMOSD) is a rare relapsing autoimmune disorder that preferentially causes inflammation in the optic nerve and spinal cord.
” The repertoire of autoimmune encephalitis in children is different from that of adults. The younger the child the more difficult it is to recognize specific autoimmune encephalitis syndromes” (https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26906964)
Although seizures are frequent in all types of autoimmune encephalitis, the risk for chronic epilepsy is dependent on the antigen: lower if located on the cell-surface, and higher if intracellular.
“Most severe anti-NMDAR encephalitis patients will eventually achieve good long-term prognoses after receiving early, positive and unremitting combined immunotherapy and life support.”
These reviews focus on the nature of psychiatric symptoms occurring at the onset or during the course of Autoimmune Encephalitis.