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What are the different types of autoimmune encephalitis?

What are the different types of autoimmune encephalitis?

December 28, 2022 | by Sophie Liebergall, PennNeuroKnow and IAES Collaboration

A message from IAES Blog Staff:

The staff at IAES is proud to present to all of you another wonderful article/blog from the amazing team at PennNeuroKnow. Since 2019 IAES has been extremely lucky to be in partnership with the PennNeuroKnow(PNK) team to help us all better understand complex medical issues related to AE and neurology in general. The talented PNK team continues to keep us up-to-date and help clarify the complexities we face each day along our AE journey, and we are eternally grateful! You can find out much more about this stellar group at: https://pennneuroknow.com/

——

Introduction

Receiving a diagnosis of autoimmune encephalitis can be a stressful and uncertain time for many patients and their families. And to make it even more confusing, doctors often don’t just give patients a diagnosis of autoimmune encephalitis, but rather anti-NMDAR or anti-Hu or anti-GABAA encephalitis. There are many different types and subtypes of autoimmune encephalitis that can have distinct symptoms, underlying causes, and responses to treatment.1However, the terminology that doctors use to refer to these different subtypes is complex and can sometimes feel like wading into a bowl of alphabet soup! Here, we will try to break down some of the ways that doctors distinguish types of autoimmune encephalitis to help patients and their families make sense of this complicated and rapidly evolving field.

What is autoimmune encephalitis?

Before we break down the different types of autoimmune encephalitis, it is important to understand what autoimmune encephalitis is. What do doctors mean when they use the term autoimmune encephalitis? The suffix -itis can be applied to any part of the body to describe an inflammatory state. So, when -itis is added to the end of the word encephalon (which is the ancient Greek word for inside the head), it means inflammation of the brain. Therefore, encephalitis is a word that describes any sort of inflammation in the brain.

But what exactly is inflammation? What does it mean when a part of the body is inflamed? Inflammation occurs when the body’s immune system is activated.2 Typically, the immune system is activated when there are invaders in the body, such as bacteria or viruses. Once the immune system is alerted to the presence of this invader, it tries to eliminate the invader using a variety of different weapons. Some of the weapons that the immune system uses are called antibodies.3Antibodies act as signals for the immune system so that it knows where to direct its attack. One battalion of the immune system’s cell soldiers makes antibodies that specifically stick to the target. Then, the immune system sends another battalion of cell soldiers to eliminate the target that has been flagged by the antibody.

Even though the immune system’s main job is to mount attacks against invaders like bacteria and viruses, things can go wrong in the fog of biological warfare. Sometimes the immune system accidentally mounts an attack against healthy proteins in a person’s body. When the body’s immune system targets itself, it can result in what is called an autoimmune process (from combining auto-, meaning self, and -immune, as in the immune system).

Now we can put all of these terms together! When the body’s immune system accidentally targets healthy proteins in a person’s brain, resulting in inflammation in the brain, it is called autoimmune encephalitis.4

It is important to note that when the body mounts an autoimmune attack against the brain, it isn’t trying to target everyhealthy protein in the brain. Rather, it’s generally trying to target specific proteins that are found in the brain. When the immune system attacks these proteins, it can damage the proteins and the cells in which they are found. As a result, the type of autoimmune encephalitis and the symptoms associated with that autoimmune encephalitis are based on the type of protein that is targeted for attack by the immune system.5

What part of the brain is affected by autoimmune encephalitis?

Though we are still relatively early in our understanding of how the brain works, we do know that different regions of the brain control different brain functions. For example, some areas of the brain are dedicated to controlling movement, whereas others are dedicated to processing sensory stimuli. One way in which these different regions of the brain are distinct is that their brain cells can contain different proteins. This means that when the immune system mounts an attack against a protein in the brain, this attack is targeted to the regions in the brain where that protein is found. Therefore, the distinct types of autoimmune encephalitis target different regions in the brain and may affect different brain functions.1

Doctors will sometimes describe a patient’s encephalitis based on which part of the brain they suspect is being attacked. Some common terms that you may hear a doctor use to describe autoimmune encephalitis include:

  • Limbic encephalitis: inflammation of the limbic system. The limbic system includes brain regions such as the hippocampus, amygdala, and hypothalamus that are involved in emotional regulation. People with limbic encephalitis most commonly have changes in their mood and memory, along with seizures starting in the limbic system.6
  • Brainstem encephalitis: inflammation of the brainstem which is the long stalk at the base of the brain that connects the brain to the spinal cord. The brainstem is the center of many important functions necessary for survival, so people with brainstem encephalitis can have problems ranging from abnormal eye movements to trouble swallowing or breathing.7
  • Encephalomyelitis: inflammation of the brain plus inflammation of the spinal cord. Sometimes patients with autoimmune encephalitis can also mount an autoimmune attack on their spinal cord. Inflammation in the spinal cord interferes with the sensory and movement signals that are sent between the brain and the rest of the body, which can result in symptoms like weakness, paralysis, numbness, or tingling.8

Is autoimmune encephalitis caused by a tumor?

Another way that doctors distinguish between the types of autoimmune encephalitis is by using the terms paraneoplastic vs. non-paraneoplastic encephalitis. In paraneoplastic autoimmune encephalitides, the reason that the patient’s immune system is attacking their brain is because they have a tumor somewhere in their body.13 A tumor, which is a growth of abnormal cells, can be one of the most common causes of autoimmune encephalitis. This is because the abnormal cells in a tumor can sometimes do strange things to proteins normally found in the brain. For example, tumor cells can place a protein that is normally supposed to be inside of the cell on the outside of the cell, or they can begin to make a brain protein in a different part of the body where it is not normally supposed to be made. This can confuse the immune system, which causes it to attack a normal brain protein that it would otherwise leave alone.9

In contrast to these cases of paraneoplastic encephalitis, non-paraneoplastic autoimmune encephalitis occurs when there is an autoimmune encephalitis but doctors can’t find a tumor anywhere in the person’s body.1 In these cases, what is causing the immune system to all of a sudden decide to attack a healthy protein in the brain is less clear. The cause of cases of non-paraneoplastic autoimmune encephalitis is the subject of ongoing and future research by many doctors and scientists.

Which protein in the brain is the immune system trying to attack?

Perhaps the most specific way in which doctors can distinguish between different types of autoimmune encephalitis is by determining exactly which protein in the brain is being targeted. As discussed above, when the immune system mounts an attack against its target, it makes antibodies to specifically flag this target. These antibodies circulate in the blood and/or the fluid that bathes the brain. Therefore, if doctors can collect these antibodies, they can provide a clue about which protein the immune system is targeting.

As doctors and scientists have identified more antibodies involved in autoimmune encephalitis, they have started to name these types of autoimmune encephalitis after the antibody that is present. For example, one of the most common forms of autoimmune encephalitis is caused by the body mounting an attack against the NMDA receptor, which is a protein found on the surface of many cells in the brain.10 These antibodies against the NMDA receptor are called “anti-NMDA receptor antibodies” so these patients are said to have “anti-NMDA receptor autoimmune encephalitis.” Some of the most common types of autoimmune encephalitis that are named based on the antibody found against their protein target are listed in the table below.

Antibody

% of Cases with Presence of Tumor

Common symptoms

Anti-NMDAR

40% (varies)

Limbic encephalitis, psychosis, repetitive movements, unstable blood pressure and heart rate, decreased breathing, seizures

Anti-AMPAR

70%

Limbic encephalitis

Anti-GABAA

 

Severe, prolonged seizures

Anti-GABAB

70%

Limbic encephalitis, frequent seizures

Anti-Caspr2

40%

Limbic encephalitis, confusion, abnormal muscle tone

Anti-LGI1

<10%

Limbic encephalitis, seizures

Anti-Hu

>90%

Limbic encephalitis, problems with cognition

Anti-Ma2

>90%

Limbic encephalitis, brainstem encephalitis

Anti-CV2/CRMP5

>90%

Limbic encephalitis

Anti-Amphiphysin

>90%

Limbic encephalitis, widespread paralysis

 

Table Caption: Different antibodies that are found in patients with autoimmune encephalitis are associated with distinct symptoms and the likelihood that the disease is a result of having a tumor somehwere in the body. Adapted from Davis & Dalmau – Autoimmunity, seizures & status epilepticus (2013).11

In some patients doctors are unable to find an antibody that is known to be associated with autoimmune encephalitis, even if the doctor is pretty sure that the patient’s symptoms are caused by an autoimmune encephalitis. This might be because either the patient’s immune system is not making an antibody, or that doctors don’t yet have a laboratory test that is capable of identifying an antibody associated with that patient’s disease. These cases of autoimmune encephalitis are said to be seronegative.12 Doctors and scientists are still looking to identify new proteins and antibodies that are associated with autoimmune encephalitis in hopes of providing a more specific diagnosis for patients who would have previously been thought to have seronegative autoimmune encephalitis.

It is important to remember that autoimmune encephalitis can look different in every patient. For example, one patient may be diagnosed with anti-NMDA encephalitis after she has multiple seizures and is found to have an ovarian tumor. Whereas another patient may be diagnosed with anti-NMDA encephalitis after he has dramatic changes in his personality and memory, but doctors are not able to find a tumor. Nevertheless, breaking down a disease into distinct boxes can help guide doctors in their diagnostic and treatment decisions for an individual patient. And a greater understanding of the subtypes and causes of autoimmune encephalitis may be crucial for developing more targeted and effective treatments for this uniquely challenging disease.

References:

  1. Dalmau, J. & Rosenfeld, M. R. Paraneoplastic and autoimmune encephalitis.
  2. Chen, L. et al. Inflammatory responses and inflammation-associated diseases in organs. Oncotarget 9, 7204–7218 (2017).
  3. Janeway, C. A., Travers, P., Walport, M. & Shlomchik, M. J. Immunobiology. (Garland Science, 2001).
  4. Abboud, H. et al. Autoimmune encephalitis: proposed best practice recommendations for diagnosis and acute management. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 92, 757–768 (2021).
  5. Lancaster, E. The Diagnosis and Treatment of Autoimmune Encephalitis. J Clin Neurol 12, 1–13 (2016).
  6. Gultekin, S. H. et al. Paraneoplastic limbic encephalitis: neurological symptoms, immunological findings and tumour association in 50 patients. Brain 123 ( Pt 7), 1481–1494 (2000).
  7. Tan, I. L. et al. Brainstem encephalitis: etiologies, treatment, and predictors of outcome. J Neurol 260, 2312–2319 (2013).
  8. Dalmau, J., Graus, F., Rosenblum, M. K. & Posner, J. B. Anti-Hu–associated paraneoplastic encephalomyelitis/sensory neuronopathy. A clinical study of 71 patients. Medicine (Baltimore) 71, 59–72 (1992).
  9. Dalmau, J. & Graus, F. Antibody-Mediated Encephalitis. N Engl J Med 378, 840–851 (2018).
  10. Barry, H., Byrne, S., Barrett, E., Murphy, K. C. & Cotter, D. R. Anti-N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor encephalitis: review of clinical presentation, diagnosis and treatment. BJPsych Bull 39, 19–23 (2015).
  11. Davis, R. & Dalmau, J. Autoimmunity, Seizures, and Status Epilepticus. Epilepsia 54, 46–49 (2013).
  12. Lee, W. J. et al. Seronegative autoimmune encephalitis: clinical characteristics and factors associated with outcomes. Brain awac166 (2022) doi:10.1093/brain/awac166.
  13. Rees, J H. “Paraneoplastic Syndromes: When to Suspect, How to Confirm, and How to Manage.” Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery & Psychiatry 75, (June 1, 2004): ii43–50. https://doi.org/10.1136/jnnp.2004.040378.

 

 

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On June 16 th, 2022, Tabitha Orth, President and Founder of International Autoimmune Encephalitis Society officially became the 7,315 th “point of light”. Recognized for the volunteer work she and IAES has done to spark change and improve the world for those touched by Autoimmune Encephalitis. The award was founded by President George H.W. Bush in 1990.

 

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Become an Advocate by sharing your story. It may result in accurate diagnosis for someone suffering right now who is yet to be correctly identified. Submit your story with two photos to IAES@autoimmune-encephalitis.org  

 

 

International Autoimmune Encephalitis Society (IAES), home of the AEWarrior®, is the only Family/Patient-centered organization that assists members from getting a diagnosis through to recovery and the many challenges experienced in their journey. Your donations are greatly appreciated and are the direct result of IAES’ ability to develop the first product in the world to address the needs of patients, Autoimmune Encephalitis Trivia Playing Cards. Every dollar raised allows us to raise awareness and personally help Patients, Families, and Caregivers through their Journey with AE to ensure that the best outcomes can be reached. Your contribution to our mission will help save lives and improve the quality of life for those impacted by AE.   Trivia Playing cards 3 FB 500x419 - What are the different types of autoimmune encephalitis? For this interested in face masks, clothing, mugs, and other merchandise, check out our AE Warrior Store!  This online shop was born out of the desire for the AE patient to express their personal pride in fighting such a traumatic disease and the natural desire to spread awareness. Join our AE family and help us continue our mission to support patients, families and caregivers while they walk this difficult journey.   AE Warrior Store 300x200 - What are the different types of autoimmune encephalitis?

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How does the brain heal from autoimmune encephalitis and why is there so much variability in the healing process?

How does the brain heal from autoimmune encephalitis and why is there so much variability in the healing process?

December 7, 2022 | by Kara McGaughey, PennNeuroKnow

A message from IAES Blog Staff:

The staff at IAES is proud to present to all of you another wonderful article/blog from the amazing team at PennNeuroKnow. Since 2019 IAES has been extremely lucky to be in partnership with the PennNeuroKnow(PNK) team to help us all better understand complex medical issues related to AE and neurology in general. The talented PNK team continues to keep us up-to-date and help clarify the complexities we face each day along our AE journey, and we are eternally grateful! You can find out much more about this stellar group at: https://pennneuroknow.com/

——

The holy grail! The million-dollar question! How long will it take to get rid of AE, to heal from AE…when will we feel and act ‘normal’ again? Why do we not understand more of the healing process’ from a diagnosis of autoimmune encephalitis?

Kara McGaughey and the team at PennNeuroKnow help us further understand just how complex and individual our brains are!

——

Introduction

 

If you break a bone, your expectations about the healing process and how long it might last will vary depending on the nature and severity of the fracture. For example, a small fracture will come with a completely different timeline for recovery than a compound fracture (where the force of the break causes the bone to pierce through the skin).

Just like broken bones, no two cases of brain injury are exactly the same and the timeline of the healing process depends on the nature and severity of the injury. As such, when we consider healing from brain injuries, like autoimmune encephalitis (AE), the diversity of diagnoses and symptoms leads to a diversity of recovery trajectories, which can make navigating the healing process a confusing and isolating experience. Here, we dive into this diversity, exploring what healing from AE looks like, why the process takes so long, and why it varies so much.

How does the brain heal from autoimmune encephalitis?

 

“I felt like a robot controlling my body for the first time – speech, thought and movement all under shaky manual control. I felt like my brain was being reacquainted with my body.”

— Alexandrine Lawrie on AE recovery1

Autoimmune encephalitis (AE) is a collection of related conditions in which the body’s immune system produces antibodies that mistakenly attack the brain, causing inflammation. In order to begin the healing process, treatment is needed to shut down the overactive immune system, remove the antibodies mounting the attack, and reduce brain swelling.2-3 To accomplish this, doctors typically rely on a handful of treatments options:

  • Corticosteroids to reduce brain inflammation/swelling and immune system activity.
  • Blood plasma exchange to remove and replace the harmful antibodies circulating in the blood (which can find their way into the brain).
  • Intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG), which includes helpful antibodies isolated from the blood plasma of thousands of healthy donors.
  • Immunosuppressant medications (like Cyclophosphamide and Rituximab) to directly suppress the immune system, if necessary.2-4

Steroids, blood plasma exchange, intravenous immunoglobulin, or a combination of the three represent the most common defense against AE.2,4 These first-line treatments can be helpful for stopping the immune system’s attack on brain tissue and reducing inflammation. Corticosteroids, for example, reduce brain swelling by preventing the production of inflammatory proteins by immune cells. These steroids also help to restore the integrity of the blood-brain barrier, a protective lining that shields the brain from inflammatory cells and  harmful antibodies that may be circulating in the bloodstream.5 In AE the blood-brain barrier can spring leaks, which allows antibodies from the bloodstream to penetrate the brain and wreak havoc.6 Closing up any leaks in the barrier that formed as a result of AE disease progression is a critical first step in the healing process.

However, recovery from AE can take time and is often not an abrupt rise and fall of symptoms (Figure 1, left). Instead, while many people do respond to available treatment options, the initial period of healing usually falls short of complete, giving way to a longer and more complicated recovery trajectory (Figure 1, center). For example, first-line therapies fail to resolve symptoms in about 50% of patients with AE, which means that additional and prolonged treatments are often required to suppress the immune system and give the brain an opportunity to repair and recover.4 In these cases, doctors turn to second-line therapies, like immunosuppressants. While having steroids on board promotes brain healing by stopping the leakage of antibodies from the bloodstream into the brain, immunosuppressants, like Rituximab, go after the cells that make the antibodies in the first place.5 When given long-term, Rituximab can be effective at reducing symptoms and keeping AE in remission.2,4

pnk symptoms - How does the brain heal from autoimmune encephalitis and why is there so much variability in the healing process?

Figure 1: Rather than a simple rise in symptoms that is quickly attenuated with treatment (black line, left), the timeline of healing from AE often comes with a series of ups and downs (green line, center). The height of these highs and lows depends on many factors, such as the specific AE diagnosis (i.e., the type of antibody causing the attack and the brain areas involved) and the time between symptom onset and treatment. As such, each AE patient’s path to recovery looks different (right).

While therapies, like Rituximab, can be incredibly effective, outcomes are still highly variable. Because no two cases of AE are exactly the same, no two recovery trajectories are either (Figure 1, right). Both treatment options and outcomes often depend on details of the AE diagnosis, such as the type of antibody involved. For example, a recent study of 358 patients with AE demonstrated that people with anti-NMDAR antibodies, LGI1 antibodies, and CASPR2 antibodies respond differently to Rituximab immunotherapy.7 These groups of patients with AE caused by different antibodies not only reported differences in symptom relief, but they ultimately reached different levels of day-to-day independence. Nevertheless, regardless of treatment approach and AE diagnosis, early and aggressive therapy is consistently associated with better outcomes. This means that as diagnostic tools and treatments improve, more people with AE have the opportunity to heal.2

How long does the process of healing from autoimmune encephalitis take?

“Good, bad, up, down, round and round;

I feel as though I’m on a merry-go-round.

Full of uncertainty if it will ever stop spinning;

Full of frustration as I remain on my couch sitting.

It’s going to be alright; it’s going to be okay; I will continue the fight day to day.

I will keep the hope and learn to cope;

I will continue my way up this slippery slope with hopes of support and love of some sort.”

— Anonymous on living with AE8

Since people tend to differ in their response to AE treatments, they tend to recover at different paces. For some, AE symptoms decline steadily with continued immunotherapy, leading to recovery within a couple months. Others experience persistent relapses, leading to a recovery timeline on the order of years (Figure 1, right). Research studies show that most patients continue to improve 18 months to 2 years after starting treatment, but there are some people with AE who experience ongoing and life-changing symptoms.9

Similar to how some types of AE respond better or worse to particular treatments, AE diagnosis also affects the timeline of recovery and the risk of recurrence. A recent study followed up with AE patients 3, 6, and 12 months after starting treatment, assessing and comparing their symptoms using a measure of the degree of disability or dependence. Researchers and clinicians found that after three months, two thirds of patients with anti-LGI1 or CASPR2 antibodies recovered to “slight disability” compared to only 30% of patients with anti-NMDAR or other antibody-based AE.10

This persistence of symptoms among patients with anti-NMDAR vs. anti-LGI1 or CASPR2 AE may come from the fact that different AE antibodies carry different risks for relapse. For example, the risk of relapse within two years for anti-NMDAR AE is 12%.9 There are other AE diagnoses, like anti-AMPAR AE, where the relapse rate is even higher, pushing 50-60%.11 This increased risk of relapse is thought to stem from the fact that patients with anti-AMPAR AE often have psychiatric and memory dysfunction that make them less likely to keep up with medications. However, while it may be more prevalent for some types of AE than others, relapse is not a given. These same studies show that patients who receive (and continue) with first-line treatments have a lower risk of recurrence relative to untreated patients.11 Risk of relapse is further decreased in patients who have been given both first- and second-line therapies.5,9 This clear payoff of continued treatment suggests that as we continue to make improvements to AE therapies, there is potential for the percentage of patients reaching recovery to continue to increase.

All in all, vast differences in AE diagnoses and symptoms lead to lots of variability in treatment options, the healing process, and recovery timelines. This diversity of AE trajectories makes setting expectations for the healing process especially difficult. It also highlights the resilience of AE patients, their families, and their support systems who tirelessly endure and advocate despite prolonged uncertainty.

“A dear lady friend of mine (with the same illness) said this great quote that I reflect on frequently:

‘Not every day is good, but there is good in every day.’

And that has been absolutely true.

Each day presents itself with its own challenges and even though I don’t know what the future holds,

I am most calm when I focus on the good one day at a time.

–Amy on her AE journey12

Work Cited:

  1. Lawrie, A. My experience with autoimmune encephalitis: A year of recovery. The Health Policy Partnership (2022). Available at: https://www.healthpolicypartnership.com/my-experience-with-autoimmune-encephalitis-a-year-of-recovery/. (Accessed: 25th October 2022).
  2. Dinoto, A., Ferrari, S. & Mariotto, S. Treatment options in refractory autoimmune encephalitis. CNS Drugs 36, 919–931 (2022).
  3. Abboud, H. et al. Autoimmune encephalitis: Proposed best practice recommendations for diagnosis and Acute Management.Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery, and Psychiatry 92, 757–768 (2021).
  4. Dalmau, J. & Rosenfeld, M. R. Autoimmune encephalitis update. Neuro-Oncology 16, 771–778 (2014).
  5. Shin, Y.-W. et al. Treatment strategies for autoimmune encephalitis. Therapeutic Advances in Neurological Disorders 11, 1–19 (2018).
  6. Platt, M. P., Agalliu, D. & Cutforth, T. Hello from the other side: How autoantibodies circumvent the blood–brain barrier in autoimmune encephalitis. Frontiers in Immunology 8, 442 (2017).
  7. Thaler, F. S. et al. Rituximab treatment and long-term outcome of patients with autoimmune encephalitis. Neurology: Neuroimmunology and Neuroinflammation 8, (2021).
  8. Fitch, A. AE Warrior Personal Stories Archives. Autoimmune Encephalitis (2022). Available at: https://autoimmune-encephalitis.org/category/ae-warrior-personal-stories/. (Accessed: 25th October 2022).
  9. Titulaer, M. J. et al. Treatment and prognostic factors for long-term outcome in patients with anti-NMDA receptor encephalitis: An observational cohort study. Lancet Neurology 12, 157–165 (2013).
  10. Seifert-Held, T. et al. Functional recovery in autoimmune encephalitis: A prospective observational study. Frontiers in Immunology 12, 641106 (2021).
  11. Leypoldt, F., Wandinger, K.-P., Bien, C. G. & Dalmau, J. Autoimmune encephalitis. European Neurological Review 8, 31–37 (2013).
  12. Amy. Amy’s story. The Encephalitis Society (2021). Available at: https://www.encephalitis.info/amys-story. (Accessed: 25th October 2022).

 

 

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Your generous Donations allow IAES to continue our important work and save lives!

 

 

Tabitha Orth 300x218 - How does the brain heal from autoimmune encephalitis and why is there so much variability in the healing process?

 

 

On June 16 th, 2022, Tabitha Orth, President and Founder of International Autoimmune Encephalitis Society officially became the 7,315 th “point of light”. Recognized for the volunteer work she and IAES has done to spark change and improve the world for those touched by Autoimmune Encephalitis. The award was founded by President George H.W. Bush in 1990.

 

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Become an Advocate by sharing your story. It may result in accurate diagnosis for someone suffering right now who is yet to be correctly identified. Submit your story with two photos to IAES@autoimmune-encephalitis.org  

 

 

International Autoimmune Encephalitis Society (IAES), home of the AEWarrior®, is the only Family/Patient-centered organization that assists members from getting a diagnosis through to recovery and the many challenges experienced in their journey. Your donations are greatly appreciated and are the direct result of IAES’ ability to develop the first product in the world to address the needs of patients, Autoimmune Encephalitis Trivia Playing Cards. Every dollar raised allows us to raise awareness and personally help Patients, Families, and Caregivers through their Journey with AE to ensure that the best outcomes can be reached. Your contribution to our mission will help save lives and improve the quality of life for those impacted by AE.   Trivia Playing cards 3 FB 500x419 - How does the brain heal from autoimmune encephalitis and why is there so much variability in the healing process? For this interested in face masks, clothing, mugs, and other merchandise, check out our AE Warrior Store!  This online shop was born out of the desire for the AE patient to express their personal pride in fighting such a traumatic disease and the natural desire to spread awareness. Join our AE family and help us continue our mission to support patients, families and caregivers while they walk this difficult journey.   AE Warrior Store 300x200 - How does the brain heal from autoimmune encephalitis and why is there so much variability in the healing process?

Be a part of the solution by supporting IAES with a donation today.

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Our website is not a substitute for independent professional medical advice. Nothing contained on our website is intended to be used as medical advice. No content is intended to be used to diagnose, treat, cure or prevent any disease, nor should it be used for therapeutic purposes or as a substitute for your own health professional's advice. Although THE INTERNATIONAL AUTOIMMUNE ENCEPHALITIS SOCIETY  provides a great deal of information about AUTOIMMUNE ENCEPHALITIS, all content is provided for informational purposes only. The International Autoimmune Encephalitis Society  cannot provide medical advice.


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